Non-defining relative Clause
Non-defining relative Clause
1. เป็น clause ที่เติมเข้ามาให้ข้อความชัดเจนขึ้นเท่านั้น ไม่มีความจำเป็นเป็นแก่ใจในประโยค
2. มีเครื่องหมาย comma คั่นข้างหน้า (และข้างหลัง clause)
3. จะใช้ that นำ clause ไม่ได้ ใช้เฉพาะ who , which , whom , whose เท่านั้น เช่น
Jim Smith , who lives next door , is coming to see you.
เมื่อกล่าวถึง Jim Smith ก็เป็นที่เข้าใจกันดีระหว่างผู้พูดและผู้ฟัง ดังนั้นข้อความ who lives next door จึงเพิ่มเข้ามาเพื่อให้รายละเอียดเท่านั้น
My uncle John, who owns a department store , is very rich.
1.1 Persons ใช้ who เท่านั้น
a) Charles Dickens was a very famous writer . He wrote “Oliver Twist”.
= Charles Dickens , who wrote “Oliver Twist” , was very famous writer.
b) Mr. John Brown received a reward. He got high marks in the final exam.
= Mr. John Brown ,who got high marks in th final exam, recieved a reward.
c) My friend’s uncle has gone to Paris. He works at the Ministry of Education.
= My friend’s uncle,who works at the Ministry of Education,has gone to Paris.
1.2 things ใช้ which เท่านั้น
a) Bangkok is very crowded. Bangkok is the capital of Thailand.
= Bangkok , which is the capital of Thailand, is very crowded.
b) Chiang Mai is a fantastic city. It‘s in the north of Thailand.
= Chiang Mai , which is in the North of Thailand, is a fantastic city.
c) I always read Thairath . It is a famous newspaper.
= I always read Thairath , which is a famous newspaper.
2. Object of the verb
2.1 Persons ใช้ whom เท่านั้น และตัด object ในประโยคเดิม (ไม่สามารถละ whom ได้)
a) Peter Gray is coming to see you. I met him in Wellington.
= Perter Gray , whom I met in Wellingon , is coming to see you.
b) Your girlfriend Jane came to see me. I really like her.
= Youir girlfriend Jane , whom I really like , came to see me.
c) David and Martin have arrived. I mentioned them to you.
= David and Martin , whom I mentioned to you , have arrived.
2.2 things ใช้ which เท่านั้น และตัด object ในประโยคเดิม (ไม่สามารถละ which ได้)
a) White elephants are rare. Thai people present them to the King.
= White elephants , which Thai people present to the King , are rare.
b ) Thai rice isn’t expensive. Most people like it.
= Thai rice , which most people like , isn’t expensive.
c) Dream World is famous for children. I visited Dream World last week.
= Dream World , which I visited last week , is famous for children.
3. Object of the preposition
ใช้ , whom + subject + verb…..+preposition
หรือ ….., preposition + whom + subject + verb , … —– นิยมใช้รูปนี้
a) Tommayantee is a writer. You spoke to her yesterday.
= Tommayantee , whom you spoke to yesterday , is a writer.
= Tommayantee , to whom you spoke yesterday , is a writer.
b) Mr. Vinai is my teacher. You borrowed a pen from him.
= Mr. Vinai , whom you borrowed a pen from , is my teacher.
= Mr. Vinai , from whom you borrowed a pen , is my teacher.
ใช้ .….,which +subject + verb…….preposition,…..
หรือ ……,preposition +which +subject + verb……,———นิยมใช้รูปนี้
a) Thonburi is our former capital . We’ve just learnt about it.
= Thonburi , which we’ve just learnt about , is our former capital.
= Thonburi , about which we’ve just learnt , is our former capital.
b) The Oriental Hotel is very big. I stayed at it last night.
= The Oriental Hotel , which I stayed at last night , is very big.
= The Oriental Hotel , at which I stayed last night , is very big.
(=The Oriental Hotel , where I stayed last night , is very big.) (หมายถึงสถานที่)
c) The White House is in Washington D.C.The President of America lives in it.
= The White House , which the President lives in , is in Washington D.C.
= The White House , in which the President lives, is in Washington D.C.
(= The White House , where the President lives , is in Washington D.C.)
4.1 Persons ใช้ whose เช่น
a) My eldest brother has just got married. You saw his girlfriend last Sunday.
= My eldest brother , whose girlfriend you saw last Sunday , has just got married.
b) Krisana writes novels. Her picture was in the paper.
= Krisana , whose picture was in the paper , writes novels.
4.2 Things ใช้ of which หรือ with + adjective + noun
a) My uncle’s house is on Silom Road. The window of it is brown.
= My uncle’s house , of which the window is brown , is on Silom Road.
(หรือ My uncle’s house with the broken window is on Silom Road.)